Many problems encountered in Python version management and python installation / uninstallation (MAC version)

Beginners in Python know that the Mac comes with Python 2 7, but we may use Python 3. *, Therefore, multi version management of Python is very important. This paper will use pyenv for multi version management of Python.

1. Install pyenv

First, we need to install brew. If not, the installation method is as follows:

/usr/bin/ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/master/install)"

To install pyenv, you can use brew:

brew update
brew install pyenv

To configure pyenv environment variables:

If you use the built-in shell tool, execute the following in Terminal:

echo 'export PYENV_ROOT="$HOME/.pyenv"' >> ~/.bashrc
echo 'export PATH="$PYENV_ROOT/bin:$PATH"' >> ~/.bashrc
echo 'eval "$(pyenv init -)"' >> ~/.bashrc
exec $SHELL -l

If an individual has zshell installed, execute the following at Terminal:

echo 'export PYENV_ROOT="$HOME/.pyenv"' >> ~/.zshrc
echo 'export PATH="$PYENV_ROOT/bin:$PATH"' >> ~/.zshrc
echo 'eval "$(pyenv init -)"' >> ~/.zshrc
exec $SHELL -l

How to check whether it is a built-in shell or a zshell? You can know by executing the following command:

echo $SHELL

2. Install python

Execute the command to view the installable python version:

pyenv install --list

Among them, those with only version number such as x.x.x are the official version of python, while others with both name and version such as xxxxx-x.x.x belong to "derivative version" or distribution version. With the latest Python 3 9.0 as an example:

pyenv install 3.9.0 -v

However, python-3.9.0 will be downloaded tar. XZ package, as shown in the figure, downloading is very slow:

$ pyenv install 3.9.0 -v
python-build: use openssl@1.1 from homebrew
python-build: use readline from homebrew
/var/folders/qj/7g6cxp596b93yqm5v8z3k05c0000gn/T/python-build.20201112095616.3069 /usr/bin
Downloading Python-3.9.0.tar.xz...
-> https://www.python.org/ftp/python/3.9.0/Python-3.9.0.tar.xz

So we have two ways:

  • Replace with domestic image library;
  • Download Python packages manually.   

We download the package manually: Python official download address , after downloading, put it in the following path:

~/.pyenv/cache

If you do not have this path, you can create it directly (~ /. Pyenv because pyenv must exist, but there may not be a cache folder):

mkdir -p ~/.pyenv/cache

After installation, you can find that the download process is skipped directly:

$ pyenv install 3.9.0 -v
python-build: use openssl@1.1 from homebrew
python-build: use readline from homebrew
/var/folders/qj/7g6cxp596b93yqm5v8z3k05c0000gn/T/python-build.20201112095950.3796 /usr/bin
/var/folders/qj/7g6cxp596b93yqm5v8z3k05c0000gn/T/python-build.20201112095950.3796/Python-3.9.0 /var/folders/qj/7g6cxp596b93yqm5v8z3k05c0000gn/T/python-build.20201112095950.3796 /usr/bin
Installing Python-3.9.0...
python-build: use readline from homebrew

Uninstallation is also simple:

pyenv uninstall 3.9.0 -v

3. python version management

After installation, the database needs to be updated:

$ pyenv rehash

View the currently installed python Version (if pyenv version is executed, the current version will be displayed directly):

$ pyenv versions
* system (set by /home/seisman/.pyenv/version)
3.9.0 

The asterisk indicates that you are currently using the system's own python.

Set the Python version of the global:

$ pyenv global 3.9.0
$ pyenv versions
system
* 3.9.0 (set by /home/seisman/.pyenv/version)

Confirm the python version and directly execute the command Python:

$ python        
Python 3.9.0 (default, Nov 12 2020, 10:01:22) 
[Clang 12.0.0 (clang-1200.0.32.21)] on darwin
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> exit()

You can execute python global system again, and then switch back to the built-in version of the system.

In addition, there are three forms of python switching: global, local and shell:

// Different python Switch between versions
// Set global Python Version, by writing the version number to ~/.pyenv/version Document mode
pyenv global 2.7.16  
// set up Python Local version, by writing the version number to the .python-version File mode. Set in this way Python Version priority global high
pyenv local 2.7.16
// Set the current session of the Shell. The wisdom will affect the Python version of the current session. Once the current Terminal is turned off or another Terminal is opened, it will be invalid
pyenv shell 2.7.16

// Priority: shell > local > Global

Note:

  • The system's own script will directly call the old version of Python in the form of / usr/bin/python, so it will not affect the system script;
  • When using pip to install the third-party module, it will be installed to ~ / pyenv/versions/3.4.1 will not conflict with the system module.
  • After using pip to install the module, you may need to execute pyenv rehash to update the database;

4. Python installation path problem

We can know where the Python we installed is located in this way:.

$ python      

WARNING: Python 2.7 is not recommended. 
This version is included in macOS for compatibility with legacy software. 
Future versions of macOS will not include Python 2.7. 
Instead, it is recommended that you transition to using 'python3' from within Terminal.

Python 2.7.16 (default, Jun  5 2020, 22:59:21) 
[GCC 4.2.1 Compatible Apple LLVM 11.0.3 (clang-1103.0.29.20) (-macos10.15-objc- on darwin
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> import sys
>>> print(sys.path)
['', '/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python27.zip'
  , '/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7'
  , '/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/plat-darwin'
  , '/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/plat-mac'
  , '/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/plat-mac/lib-scriptpackages'
  , '/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/lib-tk'
  , '/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/lib-old'
  , '/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/lib/python2.7/lib-dynload'
  , '/Library/Python/2.7/site-packages'
  
, '/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/Extras/lib/python'
  , '/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/Extras/lib/python/PyObjC'] >>>

From this, we can know the path of our installation. Some netizens always cut as follows:

  • The python path of Mac system is / system / library / frameworks / python framework/Version. There may be multiple Python versions here. Current stores the current Python version of the system. Enter Current/bin and enter it in the terminal/ python --version to view the current Python version of the system (Note: if you use the python --version command to view the current Python version of the user rather than the system Python version)
  • The HomeBrew installation path is / usr / local / cell / python, where the installed version of HomeBrew is stored. Enter 2.7.16/bin and enter it on the terminal/ python --version to view the python version currently used by the user. If you use brew to install Python correctly, the user's current Python version will be the newly installed python.
  • The default path for system commands is / usr/bin, and the default path for user commands is / usr/local/bin (the default path for brew installation). If there are the same commands, they will be searched in turn according to the order of environment variables in the / etc/paths file (the front takes precedence over the back). You can also enter echo $PATH at the terminal to view the environment variables. Follow the path on the left takes precedence over the path on the right.

5. Install python from CommandLineTools for Mac

One day, I suddenly found a python 3 in my mac 8.5. I'm curious about how it came from. According to the method in Chapter 4 above, I see that it's the following commandLineTools:

'/Library/Developer/CommandLineTools/Library/Frameworks/Python3.framework/Versions/3.8/lib/python38.zip', 
'/Library/Developer/CommandLineTools/Library/Frameworks/Python3.framework/Versions/3.8/lib/python3.8', 
'/Library/Developer/CommandLineTools/Library/Frameworks/Python3.framework/Versions/3.8/lib/python3.8/lib-dynload', 
'/Library/Developer/CommandLineTools/Library/Frameworks/Python3.framework/Versions/3.8/lib/python3.8/site-packages'

Python3 in the directory of / Library/Developer/CommandLineTools should be generated when a certain version of Xcode command line tools is installed, but the new version of Xcode command line tools does not contain python3, so you can uninstall Xcode command line tools first. According to Apple's official documents, this directory can be deleted directly:

sudo rm -rf /Library/Developer/CommandLineTools
sudo rm -f /usr/bin/python3

However, / usr/bin/python3 cannot be deleted casually. Previously, su root was used to switch to the root user (the display # number after switching indicates that the switching is successful), and then execute the following command to delete it.

chmod 777 /usr/bin/python3

However, after the macbook pro was upgraded, it could not be completed directly because it was already read only. In order to protect the system and prevent malicious operations, it is not even allowed to create a folder in the root directory (there is no option to create a new folder):

    

However, this can be handled as follows:

Shut down press Command+R to restart, enter recovery mode, shut down SIP: open the Terminal gadget Terminal, and enter the command:

csrutil disable

After normal restart, re mount the root directory: enter the command

sudo mount -uw /

At this point, you can delete the folder just now. At the same time, you can also create a folder in your root directory:

Create a data directory where you like, such as:

mkdir /Users/xxx/data

Then establish a soft connection:

sudo ln -s /Users/xxx/data /data

Shut down, press Command+R to restart, enter the recovery mode, reopen SIP: enter the command at the terminal

csrutil enable

The / data directory can be restarted normally.

After deletion, reinstall Xcode command line tools:

xcode-select --install

If the prompt fails to install successfully, don't worry. You can manually download it from Apple's official website and install it.

The download address is: https://developer.apple.com/download/more/ , search Command Line Tools, and then select a download to install.

    

Tags: Python

Posted by argyrism on Sat, 07 May 2022 21:54:01 +0300